Cisco CUCM – Reports from SQL (show risdb)

Hey guys,

In my last post, I gave you some tips on how pull CDRs out from CUCM using SQL commands (Cisco CUCM – CDR through SQL). Today, I’m going to show other useful reports you can get using SQL commands.

As we are getting all the information from a CLI command, you will need to export the data to an excel file  to create something nice to be presented….or even use Python, PHP, to create something automatic for you.

Today I’m going to focus on one command, but with different variables and outputs: show risdb
This command displays RIS database table information.

Parameters

list : displays the tables that are supported in the Realtime Information Service (RIS) database.
query : displays the contents of the RIS tables

So, if you enter the command show risdb list, you will see a list of options in the table that you can explore.

image

The most common, and used, is the Phone.
To access this table, you must use this command: show risdb query phone.

image

This command is so powerful and useful!!! Here we see everything related to your phones: DeviceName, Descr, Ipaddr, Ipv6addr, Ipv4Attr, Ipv6Attr, MACaddr, RegStatus, PhoneProtocol, DeviceModel, HTTPsupport, #regAttempts, prodId, username, seq#, RegStatusChg TimeStamp, IpAddrType, LoadId, ActiveLoadId, InactiveLoadId, ReqLoadId, DnldServer, DnldStatus, DnldFailReason, LastActTimeStamp, Perfmon Object.

In other words, you can have a list of devices in your Cluster, check each phone is currently Registered or Unregistered, and its information such as IP, Protocol, Model……an excellent Report Smile

But, if you want to explore it a bit more, there are other interesting queries!
For example, if you want to have a report about your SIP Trunks, you can use this command: show risdb query sip.

Here you have information about your SIP Trunk, such as name, IPs, descriptions, Status, Peer Status.

This is the Trunk on CUCM:

image

image

The Status column (in red) corresponds to the “Service Status” field visible near the top of CCMAdmin’s SIP Trunk page.

0 – No service (The Trunk peer is reachable via TCP, but SIP Options ping is failing)
1 – Full service (All Trunk peers are up and SIP Options ping is successful)
2 – Partial service (A subset of Trunk peers are unreachable)
3 – Unknown (The Trunk peer is unreachable via TCP, or SIP Options ping is not enabled)

image

The PeerStatus column (in blue) corresponds to the “Status” field for each peer on the SIP Trunk page (near the bottom).

0 – Down
1 – Up

Now it’s up to you to choose a query from RSIDB list and start to explore it. You will find interesting options there, like CTIs, Gateways…..

Hope you’ve enjoyed it Smile

See ya!

Bruno

Setting up Azure AD Company Branding

BrandingLogo

In this blog, I’ll show you how to configure Azure AD company branding options. You can see your organization’s logo and custom color schemes, user hints to provide a familiar and friendly look and feel in your Azure Active Directory. The only prerequisite needed for this configuration is Azure P1 licenses

NOTE:
Before obtaining your images to customize your Azure AD login branding, keep in mind the graphic formats and maximum image and file sizes.

Also keep in mind every time you make a change and test it out, your branding will get cached on one of the many global Azure AD Authentication endpoints. As stated in the documentation changes can take up to an hour to be reflected. Be patient (or keep reloading many times until you hit a new endpoint that will get the new config).
It can take up to an hour for any changes you made to the sign-in page branding to appear.

OK let’s get start.

Go to portal.azure.com and open the Active Directory blade or go directly to the AAD (Azure Active Directory) by clicking the following link: (https://aad.portal.azure.com)

Next Navigate to Azure Active Directory -> Company branding and select to Configure icon to Configure / Edit Company branding

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Now click on Configure or Edit the branding configuration and type in the information.

Note: The language is automatically set as your default language based on the Azure subscription setup and it can’t be changed. However, you can configure additional languages by select the New Language option.

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Finally click Save at the top of the screen and the company’s branding page is saved in Azure Active Directory.

3

Add your custom branding to pages by modifying the end of the URL with the text, ?whr=yourdomainname. This specific modification works on different types of pages, including the Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA) setup page, the Self-service Password Reset (SSPR) setup page, and the sign in page.

Whether an application supports customized URLs for branding or not depends on the specific application, and should be checked before attempting to add a custom branding to a page.

Examples:

Original URL: https://aka.ms/MFASetup
Custom URL: https://account.activedirectory.windowsazure.com/proofup.aspx?whr=contoso.com

Original URL: https://aka.ms/SSPR
Custom URL: https://passwordreset.microsoftonline.com/?whr=contoso.com

After you’ve created the Custom branding, if you want to test it, access the page by https://login.microsoftonline.com/<domain name> and you will see your new custom screen.

This time it was a quick post guys, see you soon, thanks!

Joao Costa

Cisco CUCM – CDR through SQL

Hey everybody,

Today’s post is going to be quick, but may give you some good tips Smile
Last week I got some requests from a Customer, and he needed to know which extensions were recently being used . In order to save licenses, he wanted to delete all phones/lines that weren’t being used.

CDRs on CUCM is a nightmare in my opinion. Mainly when you need to check lots of lines, for a long period.
That’s why I decide to pull this information out directly from SQL.

So here are some useful commands to get CDRs from SQL, and depending on your needs and knowledge, you can use Python or other language to built your own CDR Reporting Smile

First of all, to use the commands you need to ensure that the following steps are taken on your CUCM system:

  1. Activate the CDR Analysis and Reporting (CAR) service on the CUCM publisher node.
  2. Go to System > Service Parameters and set the Cisco Call Manager service “Call Diagnostics Enabled” parameter to true on every cluster node that has the Call Manager service activated.

Now, going to SQL, this is the structure of any SQL Command on CUCM:
admin: run sql select [field list] from [table] where [expression]

The table we are going to use is tbl_billing_data. This table stores all of the elements we need to accomplish the task at hand.

So this is going to be our syntax: run sql select + column + from tbl_billing_data + where + column + (like,in,between,etc).

PS: Please not this command is only acceptable on Publisher.

In my example, I want to get Date (TimeStamp) , Calling and Called Number of all calls from extensions which have “702709” in their numbers and happened this month.

The date must be sent in TimeStamp mode. I use THIS SITE to convert normal date to Timestamp, and vice versa. If you were pulling CDR data into Excel then you can use the following formula (in a new cell) to do the conversion:
=(((A1-(6*3600))/86400)+25569)

Right, so this is the command:

run sql car select datetimeOrigination,callingPartyNumber,finalCalledPartyNumber from tbl_billing_data where callingpartynumber like ‘%702709%’ and datetimeconnect > ‘1630486076’

And here is the result:

image
Well, now you can explore and play a bit more, depending on your needs. You can add more columns, like duration, destIpAddr, callingPartyNumber_uri, originalCalledPartyPattern,callingPartyNumberPartition,EU_SIP_SME_NOS….

That’s it guys. As I said, it was really quick Smile

Hope you’ve enjoyed!

Bruno

Azure – Setting up Conditional Access

Conditional Access Icon

Today we are going to talk about Azure Conditional Access. The idea behind Conditional Access is that you can manage and control your IT environment by setting up compliance rules for your users to access company resources, for example Exchange Online, Sharepoint, OneDrive etc.
Basically you will need to create a rule that says, for example, that all users who are outside your physical working environment (Does this still exist?) and who have devices provided by the company and Multi-factor authentication enabled will be able to access Sharepoint. You can choose if you only want to register this information (Report-Only) or if you really want to deny/grant access if the user does not comply with the rules you stipulated above.

conditional-access-overview-how-it-works

In the past, one of the resources used to perform this kind of control was ADFS through claim rules, but many companies thought twice before an implementation due to the complexity of the environment and for adding another point of failure to the environment, after all if ADFS were to fail at all the environment would be unavailable. One of the advantages of ADFS, depending on the need for control is the cost, after all, for Conditional Access to be enabled and it is necessary to have Azure P1 License, ADFS would be the costs of Virtual Machines, public certificate, public IP, NAT and Load Balancing (In an environment with redundancy).

Anyway, let’s leave theory aside and let’s see how to configure Conditional Access.

Go to the Azure Portal and in the search menu type Conditional Access and then click on the Conditional Access blade

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As a first step I suggest that you add the trusted locations (Named Locations), that is, known networks. Click on Named Locations and then select one of the options; 1- Countries Locations or 2 – IP Ranges Locations. I opted for option 2 and added the IP/IP Ranges of my trusted locations.

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PS. The above IP was used as an example, not a valid IP.

Now that you have trusted locations, let’s create a Conditional Access policy. Still on the Conditional Access blade, click Policies and then New Policy.

Name your policy and choose the user context that will be included or excluded from your policy. In my scenario, I just selected the Test IT user to be included in this policy.

3

Now in Cloud Apps or Actions you will need to choose which applications will be in the scope of your conditional rule, you can opt for all apps or just select the ones that contain sensitive data. In my example I used SharePoint Online only.

4

Now that you’ve defined the scope of users, applications and trusted locations, it’s time to configure the conditions that the user will need to “be in” to have access to the resource (Here it’s also possible to configure which conditions the user needs to “be in” to have access denied, works both ways).

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In the above scenario; Device Platforms: All, Locations: Applies to all locations and excludes trusted locations, Client Apps: All, Device State: All.

Finally, in the Access control option, you will determine the action that will be taken according to the conditions that the user is trying to access the application (In this scenario SharePoint Online).

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Click select and then create.

In my scenario, access to SharePoint will only be possible if the user has MFA enabled, is in an untrusted location and is using a device joined to the domain.

Ok, now I’m going to test access through a personal device to see if conditional Access will or will not allow Sharepoint access (The result should be access denied).

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Here we go, access successfully denied \0/. I suggest you play with the tool to suit your needs. If you have any questions, leave in the comments, see you in the next post.

Cisco Troubleshooting – One Way Audio Issue

Hey everyone,

Today I’m going to talk about a common issue that I believe you’ve already faced in your infrastructure.
One way audio happens when you have a call between 2 phones (internal-internal or internal-external), and one of them cannot hear the other end.

The causes of one-way audio in IP Telephony can be varied, but the root of the problem usually involves IP routing issues.

Possible causes for the one-way audio issue:

* RTP traffic is being blocked or consumed by a Firewall or another security device.
* RTP traffic is being misrouted by a route recently added / learned, or a VRF or WAN.
* Signalling issues – Call agent is not passing the correct ports or codec, or the communication is tagged as ‘send only’ or ‘receive only’.
* RTP traffic is corrupted.
* One side is not transmitting.

A quick way to check if there’s been audio during a call is by checking its statistics.
There are 2 ways to do that. Using Jabber/Deskphones statistics, or accessing Phone’s web page and checking also the statistics.

During a call, in your Jabber, press Crtl + Shift + S to open the call statistics. A pop up window like that will appear:

image

If you are not part of the call, you can check that through phone’s web page. Open it (using phone’s IP Address), and go to Stream 1 in the left menu. The whole statistic will come up in the middle. Check if the IP address and port match the information on both sides. Keep pressing the ‘stream 1’ link and you will notice that the TX and RX stats keep increasing.
Here you can check the ‘Local’ and ‘Remote’ IP addresses, then you see the port. If the information is the same on the other side, (‘Local’ on one side should correspond to the ‘Remote’ on the other), then signalling is good.
You can also check if the Coded used is the one you were expecting.  If not, change the codec preference list or the available BW on the region.

image

Now, let’s have a  look at some scenarios and solutions, and most common issues found in the field.

  • Ensure That IP Routing Is Enabled on the Cisco IOS Gateway and Routers

Some Cisco IOS gateways, such as the VG200, disable IP routing by default. This default setting leads to one-way voice problems.
Ensure that IP routing is enabled on your router. In order to enable IP routing, issue this global configuration command on your Cisco IOS gateway:
voice-ios-gwy(config)#ip routing

  • Check Basic IP Reachability

Always check basic IP reachability first. Because Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) streams are connectionless (transported over UDP), traffic may travel successfully in one direction but get lost in the opposite direction. This diagram shows a scenario in which this can happen:

Subnets A and B can both reach Subnet X. Subnet X can reach Subnets A and B. This allows the establishment of TCP connections between the end stations (A and B) and the Cisco Call Manager. Therefore, signalling can reach both end stations without any problems, which allows the establishment of calls between A and B.

Once a call is established, an RTP stream that carries the audio must flow in both directions between the end stations. In some cases, Subnet B can reach Subnet A, but Subnet A cannot reach Subnet B. Therefore, the audio stream from A to B always gets lost.

This is a basic routing issue. Use IP routing troubleshooting methods in order to get to the stage at which you can successfully ping Phone A from Gateway B. Remember that ping is a bidirectional verification.

If transcoding is configured for an Intercluster trunk (ICT), ensure that a Media Termination Point (MTP) is configured in the Media Resource Group and Media Resource Group List associated with the trunk. If you specify an MTP when one is not needed, or fail to configure an MTP if it is needed, it has been known to cause one way voice issues for ICT configurations.

When the Cisco IOS gateway has multiple active IP interfaces, some of the H.323 signalling may be sourced from one IP address and other parts of it may reference a different source address. This can generate various kinds of problems. One such problem is one-way audio.

In order to get around this problem, you can bind the H.323 signalling to a specific source address. The source address can belong to a physical or virtual interface (loopback). Use the h323-gateway voip bind srcaddr ip-address command in interface configuration mode. Configure this command under the interface with the IP address to which the Cisco Call Manager points.

One-way voice can occur in Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP) gateways if the source interface for signalling and media packets is not specified. You can bind the MGCP media to the source interface if you issue the mgcp bind media source-interface interface-id command and then the mgcp bind control source-interface interface-id command. Reset the MGCP gateway in Cisco Call Manager after you issue the commands.

If the mgcp bind command is not enabled, the IP layer still provides the best local address.

The guidelines for the mgcp bind command are:

*   When there are active MGCP calls on the gateway, the mgcp bind command is rejected for both control and media.
*   If the bind interface is not up, the command is accepted but does not take effect until the interface comes up.
*   If the IP address is not assigned on the bind interface, the mgcp bind command is accepted but takes effect only after a valid IP address is assigned. During this time, if MGCP calls are up, the mgcp bind command is rejected.
*   When the bound interface goes down, either because of a manual shutdown on the interface or because of operational failure, the bind activity is disabled on that interface.
*   When bind is not configured on the Media Gateway Controller (MGC), the IP address that is used to source MGCP control and media is the best available IP address.

If you find that there are clock slips on the E1 or T1 interface from the show controller {e1 | t1} command, there might be some mismatch in the clocking configuration on the Voice Gateway.

Two useful commands to use in order to verify packet flow are the debug cch323 rtp command and the debug voip rtp command. The debug cch323 rtp command displays packets that are transmitted (X) and received (R) by the router. An uppercase character indicates successful transmission or reception. A lowercase character indicates a dropped packet.

voice-ios-gwy#debug cch323 rtp

RTP packet tracing is enabled
voice-ios-gwy#

!— This is an unanswered outgoing call. !— Notice that the voice path only cuts through in the forward direction and !— that packets are dropped. Indeed, received packets are traffic from the !— IP phone to the PSTN phone. These are dropped until the call is answered.

Mar 3 23:46:23.690: ****** cut through in FORWARD direction *****

XXXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXr
XrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXr
XrXrXXrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr
voice-ios-gwy#
voice-ios-gwy#

!— This is an example of an answered call:


voice-ios-gwy#
voice-ios-gwy#
*Mar 3 23:53:26.570: ****** cut through in FORWARD direction *****
XXXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXr
XrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXr
XXrrrrrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrrXXrrXrXrXrXrXrXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXrXXXXXXXXrXrXrXXrrXr
XrXrXrXrXrXrXrXrXXrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr

!— At this point, the remote end picks up the phone.


*Mar 3 23:53:30.378: ****** cut through in BOTH direction *****
XRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXXRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRXRXRXRXRXRXRXR
XRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXXRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRXRXRXRXRXR
XXRRXRXRXXRRXRXRXRXRXXRXRXRXRXRXRRXRXXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXR
XRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXR
XRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXXRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXR
XRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR
RRRRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRRXXRXRXRXRXRXRRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXR
XRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXXRRRRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXR
XXRRRRRRRRRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXR
XRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXR
XRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXRXXRRRXR

!— This is the end of the conversation.

Note: In Cisco IOS Software Release 12.2(11)T and later, the debug cch323 rtp command-line interface (CLI) command has been replaced by the debug voip rtp command.

voice-ios-gwy#debug voip rtp

——–cut through in BOTH direction——————-


*Mar 27 19:52:08.259: RTP(32886): fs rx d=10.48.79.181(20002),
pt=0, ts=4FFBF0, ssrc=8E5FC294
*Mar 27 19:52:08.275: RTP(247): fs tx d=10.48.79.181(20002),
pt=0, ts=5D00C8D9, ssrc=1F1E5093
*Mar 27 19:52:08.279: RTP(32887): fs rx d=10.48.79.181(20002),
pt=0, ts=4FFC90, ssrc=8E5FC294
*Mar 27 19:52:08.295: RTP(248): fs tx d=10.48.79.181(20002),
pt=0, ts=5D00C979, ssrc=1F1E5093
*Mar 27 19:52:08.299: RTP(32888): fs rx d=10.48.79.181(20002),
pt=0, ts=4FFD30, ssrc=8E5FC294
*Mar 27 19:52:08.315: RTP(249): fs tx d=10.48.79.181(20002),
pt=0, ts=5D00CA19, ssrc=1F1E5093
*Mar 27 19:52:08.319: RTP(32889): fs rx d=10.48.79.181(20002),
pt=0, ts=4FFDD0, ssrc=8E5FC294
*Mar 27 19:52:08.335: RTP(250): fs tx d=10.48.79.181(20002),
pt=0, ts=5D00CAB9, ssrc=1F1E5093
*Mar 27 19:52:08.339: RTP(32890): fs rx d=10.48.79.181(20002),
pt=0, ts=4FFE70, ssrc=8E5FC294
*Mar 27 19:52:08.355: RTP(251): fs tx d=10.48.79.181(20002),
pt=0, ts=5D00CB59, ssrc=1F1E5093
*Mar 27 19:52:08.359: RTP(32891): fs rx d=10.48.79.181(20002),
pt=0, ts=4FFF10, ssrc=8E5FC294
*Mar 27 19:52:08.375: RTP(252): fs tx d=10.48.79.181(20002),
pt=0, ts=5D00CBF9, ssrc=1F1E5093
*Mar 27 19:52:08.379: RTP(32892): fs rx d=10.48.79.181(20002),
pt=0, ts=4FFFB0, ssrc=8E5FC294
*Mar 27 19:52:08.395: RTP(253): fs tx d=10.48.79.181(20002),
pt=0, ts=5D00CC99, ssrc=1F1E5093
*Mar 27 19:52:08.399: RTP(32893): fs rx d=10.48.79.181(20002),
pt=0, ts=500050, ssrc=8E5FC294
*Mar 27 19:52:08.976: RTP(282): fs tx d=10.48.79.181(20002),
pt=0, ts=5D00DEB9, ssrc=1F1E5093
*Mar 27 19:52:08.980: RTP(32922): fs rx d=10.48.79.181(20002),
pt=0, ts=501270, ssrc=8E5FC294
*Mar 27 19:52:08.996: RTP(283): fs tx d=10.48.79.181(20002),
pt=0, ts=5D00DF59, ssrc=1F1E5093

*Mar 27 19:52:09.000: RTP(32923): fs rx d=10.48.79.181(20002),
pt=0, ts=501310, ssrc=8E5FC294
*Mar 27 19:52:09.016: RTP(284): fs tx d=10.48.79.181(20002),
pt=0, ts=5D00DFF9, ssrc=1F1E5093

This is all for today.

I hope you’ve enjoyed Smile

See ya!

Bruno

Creating Dynamic Groups on Azure AD

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Hey guys,

In today’s post, I’ll talk about a simple but very efficient subject, Dynamic Groups. Dynamic Groups are groups based on rules and if users match to a rule they will be added automatically in a group (Groups for devices can also be created). In other words, Dynamic Groups solve that pain of any administrator to keep their groups and distribution lists up to date. For example in the environment where I work we create groups based on locations, departments and the famous group “All”. From the moment you create the groups and rules, the only work needed from then on will be: Create the users correctly, I mean, fill in all the fields correctly so that this new user fits the rule that belongs to him.

That said, let’s get start.

Go to the Azure portal and open the “Azure Active Directory” blade.

Then select Groups > New Group and you will see the following screen (For this post I will create a group for email purposes, but you can use as a Security group as well). Fill up all the fields and select Dynamic User on Membership Type.

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The next step is to create the rule that would add users automatically based on the added criteria.

In this example rule, all users who have the field department filled with the words “Information Technology” will be added to the GetPractical group automatically.

2

If you want to validate the rule, click on the “Validate Rules” tab, manually add some users and then click on ”Validate”. The rule will tell you which of the users you have added fits the criteria entered in your rule.

4

3

As you can see from my example above, only one of the users fulfils the criteria entered in this rule.

Now click save and then click create.

Just a point of attention: If you like me have the need to create a group for all employees, I advise you to create a rule that initially doesn’t work and then turn off the welcome email function. Unfortunately there is no possibility to turn off this feature during group creation, so the only way I found at this time was to create a rule that doesn’t work or a rule that only includes you and then turn off the welcome notifications and also the mapping from the group in Outlook.

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In the image above the example of the welcome email and the group mapped in Outlook.

10

For you to turn off these two features you need to connect to Exchange Online (Microsoft 365) and execute the commands used above.

Example below:

Set-UnifiedGroup -Identity “All@getpractical.co.uk” -UnifiedGroupWelcomeMessageEnable:$false
Set-UnifiedGroup -Identity “All@getpractical.co.uk” -HiddenFromExchangeClientsEnabled:$true

That’s all for today guys, see you soon.

Joao Costa

Cisco Finesse – Adding 3rd Party Gadgets

Hey guys,

In this post, I’m going to show you how to add new gadgets to your Cisco Finesse.
It can be any special gadget you may have created, or even a simple web page to be opened in one of the Finesse Tabs.

Finesse itself allow you to upload third-party gadgets. It’s done via an specific user, 3rdpartygadget. This account only has permission to this directory, /files, and any directories created under it.

  • Set a Third Party Gadget account password

To start off, we need firstly to set a password for this account, via CLI.
So, connect via SSH into your UCCX server and enter the line command: utils reset_3rdpartygadget_password .
For the password, enter ciscocisco,  and confirm it.

image

Not, it’s time to upload your Gadget to the server.
Finesse gadgets are OpenSocial gadgets. An OpenSocial Gadget is an XML document that defines metadata for an OpenSocial Gadget container, the Finesse agent desktop. Gadgets are highly cacheable so it does not need a high-performance server.

A gadget consists of the following:

  • XML to define metadata
  • HTML for markup
  • JavaScript for interactivity
  • CSS for presentation & style

Let’s see now the steps to upload your files. For this task, I’m using FileZilla (download):

  1. Open FileZilla.
  2. In the quickconnect bar,
    in red, fill the following fields:
  • Enter the Finesse FQDN: {{web-url}} in the Host field.
  • Enter 3rdpartygadget in the Username field.
  • Enter ciscocisco in the Password field. This is the 3rdpartygadget password defined in the previous step.
  • Enter 22 in the Port field.
  • Click Quickconnect.

image

  • If a message pops up, about Unknown host key, select Always trust this host, add this key to the cache, and then OK.
  • You must see now a message like that in the log section: Status:     Connected to <URL>.
  • In the remote site section, confirm that you see a folder named / and you can see the files folder below.

image

Now you have to transfer your Gadgets file to the server:

  • Drag the EmbeddedWebApp folder (that contains the xml, js, and css) into the files folder. Note that this is the folder inside of the EmbeddedWebAppSampleGadget-Finesse-x.x.x-vx.x folder.
  • Confirm that the transfer was successful by checking that the transfers shows up in the Successful transfers tab at the bottom.

image

Give the right permission to the files. They have to have public read permission to be loaded o the Finesse Agent Desktop.

  • Select the EmbeddedWebApp folder.
  • Right-click on the EmbeddedWebApp folder.
  • From the dropdown menu, select File permissions….
  • A Change file attributes window appears.
  • Under Public permissions verify that Read permissions is selected.
  • Select Recurse into subdirectories.
  • Click OK.

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In my case, I’ve added a new Tab to my Finesse, and added my gadget. This gadget opens a URL in my webserver, an it’s used only by Supervisors.

To do that, go to your UCCX, then go to Cisco Finesse Administrator

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Go to Team Resources, and select the Team you want to change the Layout to include your new Tab/Gadget:

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In the box below, you see now the Desktop Layout Configuration.
This is how your Finesse will look like, and its gadgets.
First thing you have to do, is to select the option Override System Default. So you can edit the XML.

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So now, you have to copy all that XML file to a notepad, and add manually the Tab you want to have, and the gadget you just have added.
In my case, I want only Supervisors to have access to it, so in the XML, I go direct to the second block, which is related to Supervisors.

My XML will be like that:

I’ve added 2 Tabs: one called ISR Management, and a second one, TEST

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After adding the new Tab to your XML, you have to Copy and Paste it back to your Desktop Layout Configuration, and Save it.

Now go back to your Finesse, and you must be able to see the 2 Tabs you just added:

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In my case, when I select the Tab, it runs a page from my webserver:

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I hope you like it Smile

See ya!

Bruno

Azure Files – Part 4 – Back Up for Azure Files

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Hi guys! In today’s post of the Azure Files series (You can find out more about the series here), I will end the series talking about how to configure your environment to be backed up and have security in case of any data hijacking attempt through, for example, ransomwares.

Okay, let’s go straight to the configuration steps.

Create a Recovery Services vault

Sign in to your subscription in the Azure portal and search for Backup center in the Azure portal, and navigate to the Backup Center dashboard.

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Select +Vault from the Overview tab and select Recovery Services vault and click Continue.

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The Recovery Services vault dialog box opens. Provide values for the Name, Subscription, Resource group, and Location. Then hit Review and create.

Name: Enter a friendly name to identify the vault. The name must be unique to the Azure subscription. Specify a name that has at least 2 but not more than 50 characters. The name must start with a letter and consist only of letters, numbers, and hyphens.

Subscription: Choose the subscription to use. If you’re a member of only one subscription, you’ll see that name. If you’re not sure which subscription to use, use the default (suggested) subscription. There are multiple choices only if your work or school account is associated with more than one Azure subscription.

Resource group: Use an existing resource group or create a new one. To see the list of available resource groups in your subscription, select Use existing, and then select a resource from the drop-down list. To create a new resource group, select Create new and enter the name. For more information about resource groups, see Azure Resource Manager overview.

Location: Select the geographic region for the vault. To create a vault to protect any data source, the vault must be in the same region as the data source.

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It can take a while to create the Recovery Services vault. Monitor the status notifications in the Notifications area at the upper-right corner of the portal. After your vault is created, it’s visible in the list of Recovery Services vaults. If you don’t see your vault, select Refresh.

Configure backup from the Recovery Services vault

The following steps explain how you can configure backup for multiple file shares from the Recovery Services vault pane. In the Azure portal, open the Recovery Services vault you want to use for configuring backup for the file share.

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Next in the Recovery Services vault pane, select the +Backup from the menu on the top.

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In the Backup Goal pane, set Where is your workload running? to Azure by selecting the Azure option from the drop-down list.

In What do you want to back up?, select Azure File Share from the drop-down list.

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Select Backup to register the Azure file share extension in the vault.

After you select Backup, the Backup pane opens. To select the storage account hosting the file share that you want to protect, select the Select link text below the Storage Account textbox.

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The Select Storage Account Pane opens on the right, listing a set of discovered supported storage accounts. They’re either associated with this vault or present in the same region as the vault, but not yet associated to any Recovery Services vault. From the list of discovered storage accounts, select an account, and select OK.

The next step is to select the file shares you want to back up. Select the Add button in the FileShares to Backup section.

The Select File Shares context pane opens on the right. Azure searches the storage account for file shares that can be backed up. If you recently added your file shares and don’t see them in the list, allow some time for the file shares to appear

From the Select File Shares list, select one or more of the file shares you want to back up. Select OK.

To choose a backup policy for your file share, you have three options:

  • Choose the default policy.
    This option allows you to enable daily backup that will be retained for 30 days. If you don’t have an existing backup policy in the vault, the backup pane opens with the default policy settings. If you want to choose the default settings, you can directly select Enable backup.

Prevent attacks

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The update link opens the Security Settings pane, which provides a summary of the features and lets you enable them.

From the drop-down list Have you configured Azure AD Multi-Factor Authentication?, select a value to confirm if you’ve enabled Azure AD Multi-Factor Authentication. If it’s enabled, you’re asked to authenticate from another device (for example, a mobile phone) while signing in to the Azure portal.

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When you perform critical operations in Backup, you have to enter a security PIN, available on the Azure portal. Enabling Azure AD Multi-Factor Authentication adds a layer of security. Only authorized users with valid Azure credentials, and authenticated from a second device, can access the Azure portal.

Checks have been added to make sure only valid users can perform various operations. These include adding an extra layer of authentication, and maintaining a minimum retention range for recovery purposes.

Authentication to perform critical operations

As part of adding an extra layer of authentication for critical operations, you’re prompted to enter a security PIN when you perform Stop Protection with Delete data and Change Passphrase operations.

That’s all for now! I hope it was useful guys, until the next post, thank you!

Joao Costa

Cisco CUCM – Intercluster Lookup Service

Hey people,

Today I’m going to explain the concept of a good feature, called ILS (Intercluster Lookup Service).
ILS enables different CUCM Cluster to exchange directory URI with other clusters in an ILS network, allowing you to create networks of remote CUCM clusters. So, when you configure ILS on multiple clusters, it updates CUCM with the current status of remote clusters in the ILS network.
An ILS network comprises the following components:

Hub Clusters
Hub clusters form the backbone of an ILS network. Hub clusters exchange ILS updates with the other hub clusters in the ILS network, and then relay that information to and from their spoke clusters.

Spoke Clusters
A spoke cluster connects to the hub cluster in an ILS network to relay ILS updates to and from the rest of the ILS network. Spoke clusters contact only their local hub cluster and never directly contact other hub clusters or other spoke clusters. A spoke cluster can have only one hub cluster.

Global Dial Plan Imported Catalogues
To provide URI dialling compatibility with third-party systems, you can manually import a third-party directory URI or +E.164 number catalog from a CSV file into any hub cluster in the ILS network

CONFIGURATION

Let’s go deep to the configuration. For that, I’m going to use this topology as example:
2 CUCM clusters in the ILS network.

  • 10.106.79.71 – HQ Cluster
  • 10.106.79.83 – BR Cluster

topology.png

  • Activate Intercluster Lookup Service on all the CUCM Publisher

    You must activate the Intercluster Lookup Service to configure Cluster IDs and Remote Clusters.
    From Cisco Unified Serviceability, choose Tools > Service Activation.
    From the Server drop-down list, choose the node and then click Go.
    Select ‘Intercluster Lookup Service’ and Save.

    0.png

  • Configure Cluster IDs

    You must configure a unique cluster ID for each cluster in the ILS network. The clusters use this unique cluster ID and peer ID when they exchange status messages.
    In Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration, choose System > Enterprise Parameters.
    In the Enterprise Parameters Configuration window Cluster ID field, enter a name of the cluster that you
    want to configure in your network.

    1.png

  • Activate ILS on the Hub Cluster

    You must configure each cluster in your ILS network as either a hub cluster or a spoke cluster. Each ILS network must have at least one hub cluster. You can connect a hub cluster to other hub clusters, or you can configure a hub cluster as the only hub cluster in the network. In addition, you can connect a hub cluster to multiple spoke clusters, or you can configure the hub cluster with no spoke clusters.

    Now, considering the Node 10.102.79.71 as the ILS HUB Cluster.

    Go to Advanced Features > ILS Configuration > and configure as follows.

    AA1.png

    Route String: This will be a unique string that will be advertised to the other clusters. Other ILS peers use Route String to route the call.

    Above configuration uses ‘Password’ based ILS authentication and synchronize the clusters every 1 minute.
    The moment you click Save, it will ask for ILS Registrar Server. Since I do not have any other HUB cluster, we can leave blank and click OK.

    4.png

  • Activate ILS on the Spoke Cluster

    Now, the node 10.106.79.83 will be  the SPOKE cluster.
    Go to Advanced Features > ILS Configuration > and configure as follows.

    A2.png
    When you click Save, enter the Registrar server as the HUB cluster 10.106.79.71.

    6.png


    Now refresh the ILS configuration to see the updated status.

    A3.png

  • Configuring URIs for the End Users

    Go to User Management > End User > and select the user you want to enable URI.
    For LDAP user, make sure the URI is synced from LDAP server. For the local users, you can set a URI as shown below.
    CUCM End User URI Configuration.png

    Then, go to the Controlled Devices section and assign the user’s desk phone as the controlled device. Also, configure the primary extension (mandatory!!).

    Primary extension for URI dialing.png

    Now go to the Directory number configuration(e.g. 1002). Now you will be able to see the URI field.

    Direcory URI configuration CUCM.png

  • Verify the Learned Directory URIs

    Go to Call Routing > Global Dial Plan Replication > Learned Directory URIs

    9.pngA4.png

    Any of the URI learned via ILS will be having 2 unique values. One is the Route String and another one is Cluster ID. Route String is used to route the call back to the respective cluster via a separate SIP trunk.
    ILS will only take care of advertising the URIs between clusters. They do not participate in call routing. For dialling the URI from one cluster to another, we need to have a separate SIP trunk.

  • ILS Restrictions


    imageimage

  • ILS Troubleshooting

    Here are some Troubleshooting Tips:

    Issue: Local Cluster Cannot Connect to the ILS Network

    To troubleshoot connection issues within the local cluster, open RTMT and run alarms and diagnostic traces on that publisher node. If you receive an error message when trying to establish ILS between your clusters, you can try to restart the Cisco Intercluster Lookup service from Cisco Unified Serviceability Administration. In addition, connection issues may arise if authentication is improperly configured between clusters. Check authentication in the following manner:
    • If you are using TLS, make sure that all clusters in the network are using TLSand that Tomcat certificates have been exchanged for all the servers that need to communicate.
    • If you are using TCP password authentication, make sure that all ILS clusters are using TCP password authentication and that the same TCP password is assigned across the network.

    Issue: Directory URIs Are Not Being Replicated Across the ILS Network

    This error can occur for a variety of reasons. Check the following:

    • Verify that all clusters in the network are configured to exchange global dial plan data. If a hub cluster is not configured to exchange global dial plan data, none of that hub’s spoke clusters will be able to exchange directory URI catalogs.
    • Allow enough time for end-to-end replication based on synchronization intervals (set on the ILS Configuration page) that are configured for all the clusters involved in the path. All clusters in an ILS network are a maximum of three hops from every other cluster in the network.
    • Use the utils ils showpeerinfo CLI command to monitor replication progress by looking at the USN values for the remote clusters.
    • Increase speed of replication by changing the ILS Sync Throttle Service Parameter. Note that a low setting can affect system performance.
    • Verify that all clusters in the ILS network have unique cluster IDs and that none of the clusters are configured with Stand Alone Cluster as its cluster ID. You can check Cluster IDs in Cisco Unified CM Administration under System > Enterprise Parameters.

    Issue: Global Dial Plan Replication Is Configured, but Unified CM Still Cannot Place a Call to A Learned Directory URI or Learned Number in a Remote ILS Cluster

    This condition can occur if ILS and Global Dial Plan Replication are enabled on all clusters in the network, but SIP route patterns that route to the route strings for the remote clusters have not been configured. Do the following:
    • In the ILS Clusters and Global Dial Plan Imported Catalogs view in the ILS Configuration window, check the route string for the remote cluster.
    • In the SIP Route Pattern configuration window, make sure that you have route patterns that map to the route strings for your remote clusters

    Hope you’ve enjoyed Smile

    See ya!

    Bruno

Azure Files – Part 3 – AD SMB Authentication for Azure Files

AzFiles1

Hey guys! In the first two posts about Azure Files, I initially explained what Azure Files is (Click here to read) and also explained what would be the simplest way of configuring it, using the storage account’s access key (Read this post here).

When on-premises AD authentication is enabled for Azure Files, your AD domain-joined machines, regardless of whether they are in Azure or on-premises, will be able to use Azure Files using their existing AD credentials.

Prerequisites

  • Before you enable AD DS authentication for Azure file shares, make sure you have completed the following prerequisites:
  • Select or create your AD DS environment and sync it to Azure AD with Azure AD Connect.
  • You can enable the feature on a new or existing on-premises AD DS environment. Identities used for access must be synced to Azure AD. The Azure AD tenant and the file share that you are accessing must be associated with the same subscription.
  • Domain-join an on-premises machine or an Azure VM to on-premises AD DS. For information about how to domain-join, refer to Join a Computer to a Domain.
  • If your machine is not domain joined to an AD DS, you may still be able to leverage AD credentials for authentication if your machine has line of sight of the AD domain controller.
  • Select or create an Azure storage account. For optimal performance, we recommend that you deploy the storage account in the same region as the client from which you plan to access the share. Then, mount the Azure file share with your storage account key. Mounting with the storage account key verifies connectivity.
  • Make sure that the storage account containing your file shares is not already configured for Azure AD DS Authentication. If Azure Files Azure AD DS authentication is enabled on the storage account, it needs to be disabled before changing to use on-premises AD DS. This implies that existing ACLs configured in Azure AD DS environment will need to be reconfigured for proper permission enforcement.
  • Make any relevant networking configuration prior to enabling and configuring AD DS authentication to your Azure file shares. See Azure Files networking considerations for more information.
  • If you don’t have .Net Framework 4.7.2 installed, install it now. It is required for the module to import successfully.
  • Download and unzip the AzFilesHybrid module (GA module: v0.2.0+). Note that AES 256 kerberos encryption is supported on v0.2.2 or above. If you have enabled the feature with a AzFilesHybrid version below v0.2.2 and want to update to support AES 256 Kerberos encryption, please refer to this article.
  • Install and execute the module in a device that is domain joined to on-premises AD DS with AD DS credentials that have permissions to create a service logon account or a computer account in the target AD.
  • Run the script using an on-premises AD DS credential that is synced to your Azure AD. The on-premises AD DS credential must have either Owner or Contributor Azure role on the storage account.

Source: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/storage/files/storage-files-identity-auth-active-directory-enable and https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/storage/files/storage-files-identity-ad-ds-enable.

Ok, Let’s get started.

The process of enabling your  Active Directory authentication for Azure FIles is to join the storage account that you used to create the file share to your Active Directory. When you enable AD authentication for the storage account, it applies to all new and existing Azure file shares.

Step-by-step

First you will need to download this script, basically it is a module you will need to add to your powershell that will be used to enable “hybrid” Active Directory. To be honest, it will be a very simple task, basically you will need to follow the steps described in the text file that is inside the zip file.

$Url = ‘https://github.com/Azure-Samples/azure-files-samples/releases/download/v0.2.3/AzFilesHybrid.zip&#8217;

Invoke-WebRequest -Uri $Url -OutFile “C:\AzFilesHybrid.zip”

Expand-Archive -Path “C:\AzFilesHybrid.zip”

Next you will need to change the script execution policy in your PowerShell environment. To do this run the following command > Set-ExecutionPolicy –ExecutionPolicy  Unrestricted –Scope CurrentUser

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Also if you don’t have the PowerShell module for Azure you will need to install it, do this using the command Install-Module Az –AllowClobber

Now, you need to connect your Azure and select the correct subscription, do this using the command shown below.

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In my example above I have only one subscription associated with this user, however if you have more than one you can use the Get command shown in the screenshot to select the correct one.

Finally, register the target storage account in Azure with your Active Directory environment by specifying the domain name, the domain account type (You can choose between computer account or Service Logon Account), and the target OU name where the service/computer account will be created:

join-AzStorageAccountForAuth -ResourceGroupName “<resource-group-name>” -Name “<storage-account-name>” -Domain “yourLocalADDomain.co.uk” -DomainAccountType ServiceLogonAccount -OrganizationalUnitDistinguishedName “ou-name-attribute-value”

After the above command you can also confirm on AD if the account has been created, and also run the following commands that is going to show you the storage account Kerberos key, the directory service of the selected service account and the directory domain information (If the storage account has enabled AD authentication for file shares).

$storageacccount = Get-AzStorageAccount -ResourceGroupName “<resource-group-name>” -Name “<storage-account-name>”
$storageacccount | Get-AzStorageAccountKey -ListKerbKey | Format-Table Keyname
$storageacccount.AzureFilesIdentityBasedAuth.DirectoryServiceOptions

Also update the password for the service account before the maximum password age is expired and then update the AD account password for the Azure storage account by running the following PowerShell command:

Update-AzStorageAccountADObjectPassword -RotateToKerbKey kerb2 -ResourceGroupName “<resource-group-name>” -StorageAccountName “<storage-account-name>”

Also if you prefer, you can set the password to never expire in AD.

The expected end result should be like the screenshots below.

PS1

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Now the last step should be to grant access permission to the appropriate users and groups, an identity (User, Group or service account) must have the necessary permission at the share level. To allow access, Microsoft provides three built-in roles to grant share-level permission for users.

Storage File Data SMB Share Reader – Allows for read access to files and directories in Azure file shares. This role is analogous to a file share ACL of read on Windows File servers. Learn more.

Storage File Data SMB Share Contributor – Allows for read, write, and delete access on files and directories in Azure file shares. Learn more.

Storage File Data SMB Share Elevated Contributor – Allows for read, write, delete, and modify ACLs on files and directories in Azure file shares. This role is analogous to a file share ACL of change on Windows file servers. Learn more.

You can use the Azure portal, PowerShell or Azure CLI to assign the built-in roles to the Azure AD identity of a user for grating share-level permissions.

To assign an Azure role to an Azure AD identity, using the Azure portal, follow these steps:

  1. In the Azure portal, go to your file share, or create a file share.
  2. Select Access Control (IAM).
  3. Select Add a role assignment
  4. In the Add role assignment blade, select the appropriate built-in role from the Role list.
    1. Storage File Data SMB Share Reader
    2. Storage File Data SMB Share Contributor
    3. Storage File Data SMB Share Elevated Contributor
  5. Leave Assign access to at the default setting: Azure AD user, group, or service principal. Select the target Azure AD identity by name or email address. The selected Azure AD identity must be a hybrid identity and cannot be a cloud only identity. This means that the same identity is also represented in AD DS.
  6. Select Save to complete the role assignment operation.

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Now just test the access, if you did everything as mentioned here the result will be as follows:

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That’s all for today guys, I’ll talk to you soon!

Joao Costa